Acadian  History  Timeline


1534 Prince Edward Island named Ile St-Jean by France.

1604 First colonization attempt on Ile Sainte-Croix (St. Croix Island, New Brunswick, just south of St. Stephen).

1605 Port Royal, which will become the major town of Acadian, is settled.

1607 Champlain discovers Iron Cross at Partridge Island indicating earlier European Settlement.

1607 Port Royal colony abandoned by the French.

1608 Champlain founds Quebec.

1610 Poutrincourt re-establishes Port Royal

1613 Port Royal looted and burned by pirate Captain Argyle from Virginia.

1613 -1618 Cape Forche colony founded by a man named Lomeron (French).

1628 Cape Forchu (near Yarmouth) sacked and burned by New Englanders.

1628 Charles and Claude (father) La Tour build a fort (Fort St. Louis) and settlement at Cape Sable (French).

1628 David Kirk captures 18 French vessels and Claude La Tour.

1628 David Kirk captures Quebec for Britain. (July 19). All of Nova Scotia and Quebec fall under English rule

          except Fort St. Louis.

1629 July three ships with Scotish settlers arrive at Port Royal.

1630 English and Claude La Tour attack Fort St. Louis under Charles La Tour (French)

1632 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye returns Quebec and Nova Scotia to France. 1632 King of England forces

          Scots to abandon settlement  at Port Royal. Settlement turned over to French.

1632 Sieur de Razilly build a settlement at Lahave. (French) 1632 Isaac de Razilly arrives with 300 settlers,

          ancestors of most Acadian families.

1635 England, Sieur de Razilly dies. Sieur d' Aulnay replaces d' Razilly (French) Port Royal moved across the river.

1636 The St. Jehan arrives with settlers, including men AND women.

1643 D' Aulnay destroys Charles La Tour's Fort St. Louis (Both French)

1643 Fort Anne built at new Port Royal site.

1645 D'Aulany destroys Charles La Tour's fort in St. John, New Brunswick. Charles La Tour's wife dies after battle.

1650 D'Aulany dies in mysterious canoeing accident with a Indian guide. 1

651 Charles La Tour replaces D'Aulnay.

1653 Charles La Tour marries D'Aulnay's widow and takes over control of Acadia and arrival of the first settlers at 

          Pubnico area of Nova Scotia.

1654 Captain Sedwidge with Orders from Oliver Cromwell, lord protector of England, captures Port Royal.

1655 Port Royal is captured by British forces. 1656 Charles La Tour (now British) is granted rights to Nova Scotia

1667 King Charles II of England gives Port Royal to France

1671 The earliest surviving Acadian census is taken. The total count comes to 340 people.

1672 Beaubassin, a town in northern Acadia, is founded.

1682 Grand Pre, another major Acadian community, is founded. 1687 A church is built (at Grand Pre).

1690 Sir William Phips captures Port Royal. (May 11). Frontenac repels Phips attack on Quebec. (Oct.)

1697 The treaty of Ryswick restores all captured territory between France and England.

1698 French fishing station established on McNabs island, Halifax Harbour.

1699 Fishing station on McNabs Island abandoned

1697 England and France are at peace, again (Re: Treaty of Ryswick).

1701 The Acadian town of Petitcodiac is founded.

1704 Another census finds a population of 1450 Acadians.

1708 With the onset of Queen Anne's War, hostilities with the English restart.

1707 Port Royal attacked twice by New England.

1710 Francis Nicholson captures Port Royal for England.

1710 Port Royal is taken by the British (for good) and renamed Annapolis Royal.

1711 June 10, North side of Annapolis River, Nova Scotia British troops massacred by Acadians and Indians.

1713 Acadia (except Cape Breton) is 'permanently' given to the British after the Treaty of Utrecht, Hudson Bay,

          Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. Annapolis Royal becomes the capitol of Nova Scotia.

          France starts building Louisbourg. Prince Edward Island, Ile St-Jean first occupied by France 1725, Aug 25 The Le Chameau,

           reputed to be the fastest ship in the French navy sank with 310 passengers caught in a raging storm

          near Louisbourg. The storm was so violent that "even strong swimming pigs washed ashore drowned."

         Cargo includes the payroll for French troops New France 1737 - 1757 The diseases brought by sailors and

           settlers at Louisbourg (smallpox 1737), Duc d'Anville's men (typhus 1746) and

          Loud Louden's men (smallpox 1757/58) were passed to the Mic Mac and the settlers.

         More than three quarter of the Mic Mac perished because of the ensuing plagues after contact with the Europeans.

1745 Louisbourg falls to British force from New England.

1746 Duc d'Anville with 71 ships and over 10,000 men leave France to retake Louisbourg, Annapolis Royal and sack New England.

          Fleet was to rendezvous with French ships from the west Indies and rangers and Indians from Quebec. The fleet was

          decimated by repeated storms and disease. The fleet arrived three months after it left France. Duc d'Anville died from

          the medicine taken to relieve the symptoms caused by a brain tumor. Many perished in Bedford basin, much of the

          remainder of the fleet was destroyed by bad weather on the way back to France. Several ships proceeded to Annapolis

          but decided not to attack because of the presence of British Men O'War.

1747 Troops from New England Massacred at Grand Pre.

1748 Louisbourg is returned to France by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle.

1749 Halifax, Nova Scotia is founded by Edward Cornwallis. Capital of Nova Scotia transferred to Halifax.

1749 2,576 Settlers are brought to Acadia by the British. 1749 Wood cutters massacred by French led Indian raid.

          First Dartmouth massacre

 1750 Dartmouth, Nova Scotia founded.

1753 George Washington is defeated by the French at the Monogahela River.

1754 French and Indian war starts in North America. War is not declared in Europe for another two years.

1755 French fleet (4000 men) engaged and scattered on the Grand Banks by the British fleet under Boscawen.

          Captured ships Alcide and       Lys found to contain 10,000 scalping knives for Acadians and Indians under

          MicMac Chief Cope and Acadian Beausoleil.

1755 Fort Beauséjour falls to British. Fort renamed Fort Cumberland. Beausoleil in charge of 300 Acadian Rangers

          fighting in and around Fort Beauséjour.

1755 Governor Lawrence of Halifax and Colonel Winslow of Massachusetts deport (exile) Nova Scotia Acadians

          throughout the civilized world after Acadians repeatedly fail to comply with government decrees.

         Over 6,000 are deported in the first year.

1756 Beginning of the Seven Years war in Europe. Marquis de Montcalm put in charge of the defense of French

          possession's in North America.

1757 Army of 12,000 officers and men under Lord Louden assemble in Halifax to retake Louisbourg.

          The attack was canceled after false information about the strength of Louisbourg fell into British hands

1757 December 6, battle at Bloody Creek between French and Indians

1758 The Acadians who fled to Ile St. Jean and Ile Royale are rounded up and sent to France.

         Two of the ships are unseaworthy and sink ... hundreds of Acadians perish. The ones who make it to France

          initially settle in northwestern France, around St. Malo and Morlaix.

1758 The British under Generals Wolfe and Amherst recapture Louisbourg. Prince Edward Island.

Ile St-Jean captured by British and called St John's Island

1759 Wolfe takes Quebec. Wolfe and Montcalm are killed in the fifteen minute battle.

1760 Montreal falls to British

1763 The war between the French and the British is over, Treaty; of Paris. Acadians who have survived the internment in

          England are sent to France. Some Acadians try to return to Acadia (now Nova Scotia) and find their land settled by others.

          Prince Edward Island, Ile St-Jean/St John's Island ceded by France to British (Treaty of Paris);

          St John's Island annexed to Nova Scotia

1763 Treaty of Paris. France cedes its North American possessions to England except for the islands of St. Pierre and

          Miquelon  (off the southeast coast of Newfoundland, still owned by France).

1765 The first Acadians begin to arrive in Louisiana.

1767 Arrival of the first settlers after the exile at Pubnico, Nova Scotia.

1769 Prince Edward Island, Ile St-Jean/St John's Island separated from Nova Scotia.

1773 A census is taken in France that finds 2,370 Acadians living there. 1

1775, Sept - Independence Hurricane struck the Atlantic region with full force, driving boats onto the Grand Banks.

          The storm drowned 4000 sailors, most from the British Isles. It also tore off roofs, crumbled chimneys and flattened buildings in St Johns.

1785 Spain provides 7 ships to carry over 1600 Acadians from France to Louisiana.

1799 Prince Edward Island, Ile St-Jean/St John's Island renamed Prince Edward Island

1816 June - Ice was reported on ponds and residents across Eastern Canada and New England enjoyed sleigh rides during

          "the year without a summer"

1867 Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec united by the British North America Act.

1873 Prince Edward Island joines Canada

1881 First Acadian Convention establishes August 15th as National Acadian Day.

1884 Second Acadian Convention, an Acadian flag and a National anthem are adopted.

1875, Oct 10- a wind and rain storm struck NS, flooding roads, carrying away bridges, wrecking 3 ships, sweeping away

          thousands of dollars worth of logs. Rainfall at Halifax exceeded 110 mm, the city's greatest one-day October total.

Winter of 1880-81, one of the hardest ever seen in Nova Scotia with snow reaching the tops of the telegraph poles in places.

          Residents either stayed home or traveled by snowshoes or dog sled. In some places horse and sled or ox and

          sled were unable to make their way.

1885 Yarmouth NS records 68.6 cm of snow, the greatest one-day total on record for any station in Nova Scotia

1891 March - 42 cm of snow fell in New Brunswick and gusts of 200 km/h whipped across Cape Breton Island. Off NS,

          hurricane force winds churned up 15-20 meter seas. A 177 m ship sank in heavy seas, 175 km south of Cape Sable Island

          with all 33 of  its crew lost at sea. 20 meter waves were reported in the area. Also a wind gust of 210 km/h occurred at

         Grand Etang.

1967 [yes, this century] - at Yarmouth, "fog occurred 85 of the 92 days of June July and August - one of the most depressing spells

         of weather in Canadian History.

1994 First Acadian World Congress was held in the Moncton New Brunswick.

1999 Second Acadian World Congress was held in Lafayette, Louisiana, USA.

2004 third Acadian World Congress held in Nova Scotia, Canada.

2009 fourth Acadian World Congress held in New Brunswick, Canada.