Acadian Historical Timelines in the Canadian Maritimes:

1604 French settlers under Pierre du Gua de Monts and Samuel de Champlain settle an island in St. Croix River.

1605 Settlement moves to Port Royal.

1606 L'Order de Bon Temps founded by Samuel de Champlain. Arrival of Marc Lescarbot, renowned for his diaries describing

          life in Acadia.

1607 De Monts monopoly canceled.

1610 Poutrincourt comes to Acadia.

1613 English from Jamestown, Virginia attack, beginning the struggle between French and English for control of Acadia.

1621 English change name to Nova Scotia.

1632 French settlers under Isaac de Razilly settle at La Héve.

1635 French focus for settlement switches from La Héve back to Port Royal.

1640 1st dykes built. Charles La Tour and Menou d'Aulnay fight for control of Acadia.

1654 British, led by Robert Sedgewick from Boston, capture Port Royal, La Have and a fort at the mouth of the Saint John River.

1667 Treaty of Breda under which England gave Acadia back to France, although it was not until 1670 that the actual exchange of

          control took place.

1671 1st official census registers Acadian population of more than than 400.

1672 Village Beaubassin founded by Jacques Bourgeois near present-day Amherst, Nova Scotia.

1680 Grand-Pré founded by Pierre Melanson.

1690 English begin repeated attacks on Port Royal.

1709 Birth of Charles Lawrence, the career soldier who ordered the expulsion of the Acadians in 1755. He was appointed Lieutenant-

          Governor of  Nova Scotia in 1754.

1710 Final surrender of Acadia to the English Acadian population rises from 2500 to 8000 over next 39 years.

1713 Treaty of Utrecht; Birth of Edward Cornwallis, Governor of Nova Scotia from

1749-1752. Cornwallis founded Halifax in an effort to strengthen the British position.

1724 Mi'kmaq attack English at Fort Anne, but the English suspect Acadian involvement.

1729 Acadians sign conditional Oath of Allegiance under Governor Richard Phillips, who fails to inform Britain of this oath which does

          not require Acadians to bear arms for the English.

1745 Capture of Louisbourg by the English.

1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

1749 Halifax established as British capital of Nova Scotia.

1755 Siege of Fort Beauséjour in June. In July Acadian representatives refuse to sign Oath of Allegiance. Deportation begins in August,

          first at Fort Cumberland (formerly Beauséjour), then Grand-Pré and later Annapolis Royal.

1764 Acadians permitted to return to Nova Scotia.

1766 Acadians return to Pubnico.

1768 Acadians re-settle at Clare.

1782 Acadians re-settle at Cheticamp.

1789 Nova Scotia Acadians regain the right to vote.

1810 New Brunswick Acadians win the right to vote.

1829 Roman Catholics given political rights in the Maritimes, allowing them to vote and run for political office.

1830 Prince Edward Island Acadians win right to vote.

1836 1st Acadian elected to Nova Scotia Legislative Assembly.

1847 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem, "Evangeline" published.

1859 1st French-language study of Acadians undertaken by Edme Rameau of France.

1864 College Saint Joseph established in Memramcook, New Brunswick.

1867 Le Moniteur Acadien, French-language newspaper in the Maritimes, established.

1881 First National Acadian Convention held in Memramcook, New Brunswick. Our Lady of Assumption chosen as Patron

          Saint of Acadians.

1884 National Acadian Convention held in Miscouche, Prince Edward Island at which national flag and anthem are chosen.

1885 Pascal Poirer, Acadian lawyer appointed senator for New Brunswick.

1890 College Sainte-Anne established in Church Point, Nova Scotia.

1905 St. Mary's Church built.

1917 First Acadian Premier of Canadian province with Aubin-Edmond Arsenault elected Premier of Prince Edward Island;

          Fort Anne becomes a National Historic Site.

1928 Fortress Louisbourg becomes a National Historic Site.

1939 Port Royal Habitation is reconstructed as a National Historic Site

1945 Joseph-Alphonse Bernard of Prince Edward Island becomes the first Acadian Lieutenant-Governor.

1961 Grand-Pré becomes a National Historic Site.

1963 Université de Moncton established.

1968 Centre d'etudes acadiennes established at Université de Moncton.

1971 La Sangouine, world-renowned novel by Antoine Maillet, published.

1973 Centre acadien established at College Sainte-Anne.

1977 College Sainte-Anne becomes Université Saint-Anne.

1979 Pelagie-La-Charrette wins French literary award for the story of a woman's ten-year trek back to Acadia after the expulsion.

1994 Congrès Mondial Acadien held in Moncton, New Brunswick.

1999 Congrès Mondial Acadien held in Acadie du Sud, Louisiana.

2004 Congrès Mondial Acadien held in Nova Scotia.

2009 Congrès Mondial Acadien held in Caraquet, New Brunswick.

Sources for the above-noted timeline include:

a) Acadia. The Canadian Encyclopedia Plus, CD-ROM. McClelland & Stewart, 1996.

b) Griffiths, Naomi. The Acadians: Creation of a People. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1973.

c) Moody, Barry M. The Acadians. Toronto, Ontario: Grolier Ltd., 1981.

d) Quinpool, John. First Things in Acadia. Halifax: First Things Publishers, 1936.

e) Ross, Sally & Alphonse Deveau. The Acadians: Past and Present. Halifax: Nimbus Publishing, 1992.

 

Cajun Historical Timelines in Louisiana:

1604 La Cadie, later called Acadie, is founded by the French in Nova Scotia.

1682 Robert Cavalier de La Salle claims Louisiana for France.

1699 First permanent French settlement in Louisiana established in Biloxi.

1713 Acadie is ceded to Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht.

1714 City of Natchitoches is founded.

1718 City of New Orleans is founded.

1719 First shiploads of African slaves arrive in New Orleans.

1755 Le Grand Dérangement begins and thousands of Acadians are deported.

1756 Poste des Attakapas is founded in south central Louisiana.

1762 France cedes Louisiana to Spain.

1764 First documented arrival of Acadians in Louisiana.

1765 Acadians settle at Poste des Attakapas.

1776 United States of America declares independence from Britain.

1785 Final Acadian migrations: Seven shiploads of almost 1,600 arrive in New Orleans from France.

1789 French Revolution brings waves of French immigrants to Louisiana.

1791 Slave revolt in Haiti brings more than 10,000 Creoles of French, African, and mixed descent to Louisiana.

1800 Spain cedes Louisiana to France.

1803 Napoleon Bonaparte sells Louisiana to U.S. for $15-million.

1809 Arrival of 5700 Francophone refugees fleeing revolution in Haiti.

1812 Louisiana acquires U.S. statehood.

1836 Vermillonville, later named Lafayette, is incorporated.

1847 Longfellow publishes Evangeline through which the world first hears about the Acadian diaspora.

1861 Civil War begins.

1882 Railroad crosses Louisiana prairie, bringing more settlers and increasing the area's contact with the outside world.

1901 Oil is discovered in Louisiana near Jennings.

1905 Thousands die in Yellow Fever epidemic.

1906 Plaquemine Lock completed, allowing continuous navigation between Mississippi River and Atchafalaya Basin.

1914 World War I begins.

1916 Suppression of the French language in schools by the State Board of Education; "Les enfants sont punis quand ils parlent français".

1921 New Louisiana Constitution adopted, officially instituting the end of any public education in French, stating that "The general

          exercises in  the public schools shall be conducted in the English language".

1927 President Coolidge visits a Louisiana ravaged by flooding.

1928 Louisiana Governor Huey P.Long begins extensive road-paving project.  Joe Falcon and Cléoma Breaux make first recording

          of a Cajun song, Allons à Lafayette.

1929 Stock market crash, beginning of Depression.

1941 World War II begins, many young Cajun men serve as interpreters in Europe.

1947 First offshore oil well in the Gulf of Mexico.

1955 Acadian Bicentennial.

1968 Conseil pour le Développement du Français en Louisiane is created.

1971 Edwin Edwards takes his Oath of office in French and English, becoming Louisiana's only French-speaking governor of the

          20th Century.

1974 Flag of Acadiana officially adopted by the Louisiana State LegislatureFirst Hommage à la musique acadienne, later to become

          part of Festivals Acadiens.

1976 Publication of Lâche pas la patate by Revon Reed, first book in Cajun French.

1980's Cajun music and food gain international recognition; c'est cool d'être Cadien.

1981 1st French immersion program in Louisiana started at La Belle Aire school is East Baton Rouge Parish.

1983 Calcasieu Parish begins an immersion program.

1989 Assumption and St. Martin Parishes introduce immersion programs.

1990 Census reports 668,271 Acadians/Cajuns residing in the U.S.; 61 percent are Louisiana residents.

1991 Louisiana State Legislature designates St. Martinville as the home of "The World Memorial to All Acadian Refugees Who

          EndedTheir Exile in Louisiana".

1992 Lafayette Parish begins an immersion program.

1994 Acadia Parish opens an immersion program; the University of Southwestern Louisiana begins the first Doctoral program in

          Francophone Studies in North America.

1995 Consortium of Immersion Schools created.

1996 Orleans Parish begins an immersion program; immersion programs in Lafayette and Assumption parishes are greatly expanded.

1998 East Baton Rouge Parish reintroduces immersion.

1999 Entire state participates in FrancoFête, a year-long celebration of the tricentennial of the founding of the first French settlement in

          Louisiana; the second Congrès Mondial Acadien held in Louisiana in August, reuniting from all over the world the descendants

          of  those deported from Acadia in 1755.

Source: The above-noted was reproduced from "Le Petit Guide", published by the Counseil pour le Développement du Français

          n Louisiane, 1999.

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